European Convention on Human Rights

1950, in force since 1953
Rome, Italy
47 Signatories
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe, signed by the Council of Europe. The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights. It also has several protocols. For example, Protocol 13 prohibits the death penalty. The protocols accepted vary from State Party to State Party, though it is understood that state parties should be party to as many protocols as possible.

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

1995, in force since 1998
Strasbourg, France
43 Signatories (39 ratified)
The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life.

European Social Charter

1996, in force since 1999
Revised Strasbourg, France
47 Signatories (43 ratified)
The European Social Charter sets out human rights and freedoms and establishes a supervisory mechanism guaranteeing their respect by the States parties. The Charter guarantees rights and freedoms which concern all individuals in their daily existence. The basic rights set out in the Charter are as follows: housing, health, education, employment, social and legal protection, free movement of persons and non discrimination.

Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

2005, in force since 2008
Warsaw, Poland
43 Signatories (27 ratified)
The Convention aims to prevent and combat human trafficking for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labour; to protect and assist victims and witnesses of trafficking; to ensure effective investigation and prosecution, and to promote international cooperation against trafficking. In particular, the Convention requires national co-ordination measures, awareness raising, measures to identify and support victims and a "recovery and reflection period" during which trafficked persons will not be expelled from the receiving state.